Video Tracking Technologies and Identity Systems
A Mediaeater Report Nov. 2001
THIS DOCUMENT IS IN DRAFT FORM -
ALL INFO IS NOT CONFIRMED
Ver. 0.7 Last Rev: Wednesday, November 21, 2001 - 6:21:36 PM
Benchmarks and Tests
Usage by Sector
1999 Biometrics Revenue by technology
Face recognition analyzes facial characteristics / facial image of a person for authentication.
See: DOD - Facial Recognition 101 (pdf)
-- BioID AG
-- Raleigh, NC
BioID AG develops, produces and markets biometric personal identification systems
-- Biometrica Systems, Inc
-- Mont Vernon, NH
The Visual Casino Product suite is a set of products and services that provide
casinos with identification tools for use in surveillance and security.
Facial Recognition, Database, Image, and Network technologies.
Clients include Foxwoods, Trump, Stratosphere..
-- Southborough, MA
Managed service provider of biometric authentication for trusted services.
Core software module for locating, verifying and/or identifyng
people's faces. This face recognition software engine can be
customized to any face recognition application from secure
financial transactions to database searches to surveillance
identification. All the interface hooks are in place so that
integration is a snap.
Complete solution for identifying a person's face in a database of
people's faces from either a surveillance video or image files.
-- FaceKey Corp
-- San Antonio, TX
-- Image Metrics
-- Stockport, Cheshire, UK
Image Metrics have a model-based computer vision platform called Optasia™,
which automates the extraction of information from images and video.
a "Image Understanding platform"
-- Imagis Technologies Inc. (OTCBB: IGSTF; CDNX: NAB; GERMANY: IGY)
-- Vancouver, B.C. Canada
Imagis Technologies is a Canadian developer of image identification software with a focus on biometric facial recognition.
Imagis markets its technology as both modules, for integration into existing applications, and as complete products for law
enforcement departments, security agencies, and casinos, who all have a clear need for facial recognition capabilities.
Systems and installations can be found in numerous sites as diverse as international airports, casinos, government offices,
correctional institutions, and police departments around the world.
Imagis Technologies - Products - Airport Security - ID-2000
-- Lau Technologies / Viisage Inc.
-- Littleton, MA
Viisage's face-recognition technology uses "eigenfaces," which map
characteristics of a person's face into a multi-dimensional face space.
The unknowing usage of their product at the Super Bowl did not play
well in early 2001
-- MetaSignal, Inc.
-- Newton, MA
MetaSignal, Inc. is developing a system that offers theme park guests a
high quality digital video souvenir of their entire day at the park without
having to carry a camcorder. Video clips of a specific individual or group
taken throughout a park by well positioned cameras are automatically
assembled to create a personalized DVD movie.
Video Information System that manages MPEG-2 footage from multiple live
camera sources. Video streams are indexed via precision metadata (tracking
or other information) and can be automatically and simultaneously, queried,
retrieved, and assembled by many clients.
-- Neurodynamics Limited
-- Cambridge UK
Tridentity is Neurodynamics biometric identification poduct focused on
three-dimensional facial recognition.
-- Anaheim, California
Imagetrak™ 5.0 Intelligent Image Management System
-- SafeTzone Technologies Corp.
-- Laguna Hills, CA
-- Clients: Wild Rivers water park in Irvine, Calif.
SafeTzone is a guest tracking system that quickly locates their child on a map of the park.
SafeTzone products are used at Waterparks/Theme Amusement Parks, Casinos/Hotels,
SafeTzone System consists of SafeTzone Tags, (about the size of a wrist watch) which are
worn by each member of the family or party, and the SafeTzone software and hardware
that is installed in the environment. By making an inquiry at any LocationStationtm within
the environment, any parent or child may locate the other.
Using radio signals, SafeTzone can read Tags at long distances (no line of sight is required)
and track their movement within a defined perimeter. The data generated by the hardware
is tied to SafeTzone’s software infrastructure that transforms, distributes and displays it at the
LocationStations using the environment’s own Ethernet backbone.
-- Mandrake Facial Recognition System
-- Swindon, United Kingdom
-- email: firstname.lastname@example.org
-- Mandrake Facial Recognition
Mandrake Facial Recognition System provides automatic monitoring for known faces,
accepting video input from Wavelength CCTV or other non-photographic
sources. Images are compared with those on the database to check for a match.
Customised extensions to the system enable integration with electronic photo-fit
systems and automatic number plate recognition.
TSSI, a Scipher company make automated systems for the authentication
of people, objects and documents. Biometrics technologies, structured magnetics
and identity systems for integration into new or existing security systems
Quote (product information sheet.)
"The Case for Face Recognition ...Covert - the subject does not need not know of its operation."
-- Visionsphere Technologies
-- Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Company has developed proprietary face recognition software and hardware products.
UnMask Plus is a software AI (artificial intelligence) system for
identification and removal of duplicate or multiple images from large
It's Me -- an advanced automatic computer logon authentication
system. The system hardware and software components can not
only be used to verify the identity of a network or workstation user at
logon time, they can also be used as part of e-Business verification,
video conferencing, etc.
FaceCam -- Visionsphere's layered, biometric, user-verification
terminal, designed and built specially for secure access
applications, such as physical access control, time and attendance
and registration systems.
-- Visionics Corporation (Nasdaq: VSNX)
-- Minnetonka, MN
-- Visionics Facial Recognition
Company is the maker of identification technologies and systems. Products like
FaceIt, live scan and IBIS which are biometric identification systems that use facial
recognition technology. TENPRINTER and FingerPrinter CMS are live scan systems
used by government agencies, law enforcement, airports, banks and other commercial
institutions. IBIS is a remote identification system that uses a capture and transmission
method that alows access into law enforcement and other legacy databases.
ResearchIndex (NEC Research Institute )
On-line publications (page is maintained by Peter Kruizinga)
Biometrics: Uses and Abuses
Face Recognition and Tracking from Video.
Eye Identification for Face Recognition with Neural Networks
Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching
Fabrizio Smeraldi's Papers
Automatic Detection and Tracking of Faces and Facial Features in Video Sequences
Public Video Surveillance: Is It An Effective Crime Prevention Tool?
The Face Recognition Home Page
Video Surveillance and Monitoring Homepage
Privacy International Video Surveillance
The Face Detection Homepage. By Robert W. Frischholz
Benchmarks and Tests
Facial Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2000 Results
FERET Database Demo
FRVT_2000 size 6410942 bytes - 11/14/2001
Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 Final Report (.pdf) size 409552 bytes
Flordia v Thomas
Kyllo v. United States (99-8508)
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967) (USSC+)
Useage by Sector
Virginia Beach VA
Casino industry (matched against a database of scam artists)
Airports (matched against a database of terrorists)
Logan Airport (2)
Iceland's Keflavik Airport
Toronto's Pearson Airport
San Francisco International Airport (tbc)
Oakland International Airport (tbc)
McGhee Tyson Airport Knoxville, Tenn.(tbc)
1999 Biometrics Revenue by technology
Face Scanning 15%
Source: Internataional Biometrics Group
A Statistical Learning/Pattern Recognition Glossary
EER Equal Error Rate
FAR False Acceptance (or Alarm) Rate
FERET A comprehensive U.S. government face recognition test, used for personnel security.
Authentication: Any process that validates who you are
Biometric: A unique, machine measurable biological trait or characteristic that can be used
to verify identity. Common biometrics are fingerprint, hand geometry, retina or iris patterns and face.
Enrollment: The process of generating a biometric template for a user. It is used during the
comparison cycle in biometric technology for authentication.
False Acceptance: When a system accepts someone that is not legitimate and allows
access. Sometimes called a false positive and also known as a Type II error.
False Rejection: When a system fails to recognize or verify a person and therefore
rejects a legitimate user. Also called a Type I error.
Unique characteristics of a fingerprint linked via algorithms. This linking forms a unique
pattern called a minutiae template.
Appearance (supported by still images)
e.g. descriptions used in passports, such as height, weight, colour of skin, hair and eyes, visible physical
markings, gender, race, facial hair, wearing of glasses natural physiography
e.g. skull measurements, teeth and skeletal injuries, thumbprint, fingerprint sets, handprints, retinal scans,
earlobe capillary patterns, hand geometry, DNA-patterns
e.g. the manner in which one's signature is written, statistically-analysed voice characteristics,
keystroke dynamics, particularly login-id and password
social behaviour (supported by video-film)
e.g. habituated body-signals, general voice characteristics, style of speech, visible handicaps
imposed physical characteristics
e.g. dog-tags, collars, bracelets and anklets, bar-codes and other kinds of brands, embedded
micro-chips and transponders
Safeguards be adopted to ensure that biometric data is not misused to compromise any information,
or released without personal consent or the authority of law; e.g. Prohibiting collected face scan data
from being sold to or shared with third parties without a warrant, civil subpoena or the informed consent
of the person;
Private sector implement policies that clearly set forth how biometric data will be
collected, stored, accessed, and used, and that preserve the rights of individuals
to limit the distribution of the data beyond stated purposes;
The government sector adopt clear legal standards that carefully define and limit the
conditions under which agencies of national security and law enforcement may acquire,
access, store, and use biometric data; and seeing that government agencies need to get a
warrant before using face scan systems
In both the public and private sectors, managerial and technical controls be put in place
to protect the confidentiality and integrity of databases containing biometric data.
Requiring data that doesn’t match that of a criminal or a suspected criminal to be destroyed.
(culled from SB 169 and the International Biometric Industry Association)