Surveillance Camera News

(assorted press releases and news items June 2000) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BC-MT--Biker Funeral, Police watch funeral; mourners watch back MISSOULA (AP) _ The funeral of a slain motorcycle gang member Saturday brought mourners in black leather and drew the interest of local police who wanted to see who attended. Frederick ``Bulldog'' Entzel of Missoula was shot to death in a motorcycle gang-related fight last week near Yakima, Wash. While his family and leaders of the Bandito motorcycle gang attended an hourlong funeral service at the Garden City Funeral Home, at least 50 other gang members wearing their yellow and red colors stood guard. Across the street, a small contingent of police watched the funeral gathering using binoculars, telephoto lenses and video cameras. The gang members used their own supply of surveillance equipment to watch back. After the services, a procession of about 85 motorcyclists and several dozen vehicles followed the hearse carrying Entzel's casket to Riverview Cemetery in Stevensville, where he was buried. Sgt. Mike Brady said Missoula police were ``basically interested in seeing who shows up.'' The Banditos, one of the largest motorcycle gangs in the country, have been relatively quiet in Missoula during the past five years but, police have seen more action in the past six months, Brady said. ``We haven't had any criminal activity,'' Brady said. ``We've just seen more of them around on their bikes, wearing the colors. They're just a little more of a presence.'' Entzel's death has heightened concerns Missoula police have about the Hells Angels four-day vacation planned for July 27-31 in Missoula. Missoula police Chief Pete Lawrenson has said the Angels and Banditos have agreed to peacefully coexist while the Angels are in Missoula. However, that agreement was reached before the Entzel shooting. ``We don't really expect anything to happen because of this, but it's something that concerns us,'' Brady said. ``It concerns us that a member of a local group has been killed. We don't really know what to expect.'' AP-NY-06-25-00 0131EDT +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BC-LA--Defendant Skips,La Bjt,BMA,0506 Accused coke dealer didn't like what he saw, so ... em2520bc BATON ROUGE, La. (AP) _ The lawyer for accused cocaine dealer Kevin Bowie had seen other videotaped evidence before, but what Bowie saw before Tuesday's trial apparently created grave doubts about his future. Bowie went on the lam after seeing a videotape showing him holding what seemed to be a bag of cocaine in his hand, his attorney said. The jury saw the tape later that day and convicted Bowie in his absence. State District Judge Bill Morvant ruled that Bowie, who reportedly has at least nine aliases, four birth dates and two Social Security numbers, had voluntarily removed himself from his trial, prosecutor Charles Grey said on Wednesday. That meant that Bowie could be tried in his absence, Grey said. ``It's difficult trying a case to an empty chair,'' said Grey, who in 15 years as a prosecutor had never before tried an absent defendant. ``But the state didn't make the chair empty. The defendant chose to have an empty chair in front of the jury.'' Sheriff's deputies set up surveillance cameras outside a house in February and March 1999 after neighbors complained about open-air drug activity, Grey said. Deputies arrested eight people, including Bowie, whose age ranges from 21 to 23, according to court papers. Bowie's attorney, Edward Partin, said he got 16 hours of surveillance videotapes from prosecutors about four months ago, and scoured them for anything incriminating. Partin said he found nothing. Then, about two weeks before the trial started, Partin said Grey gave him a ``condensed'' version of the tapes. Partin said he figured he had already seen what was on the new version, so he didn't look at it until he and Bowie viewed it Tuesday morning. What they saw surprised them, Partin said. ``There he is with an alleged bag of cocaine in his hand,'' Partin said. ``The video was very incriminating.'' When Bowie saw the tape, Partin said he tried to convince him that he could get Judge Morvant to not allow it as evidence. Partin said he and Bowie agreed to meet at the courthouse, just a few blocks from Partin's office, in less than an hour. Partin said Bowie told him that he was going outside to smoke a cigarette. That was the last time Partin said he saw Bowie. ``When I stepped out of my office probably three minutes behind him, that's when I knew he wasn't coming to court,'' Partin said. ``I did not have anything to do with him not showing up in court.'' Grey said the jury convicted Bowie of two counts of distribution of cocaine. Each count carries from five to 30 years in prison. The jury acquitted Bowie on one count of distribution that was not caught on tape, Grey said. ``They just went with the video,'' he said. Judge Morvant issued an arrest warrant Tuesday for Bowie, who had been out of jail pending the outcome of the trial. AP-NY-06-22-00 0140EDT 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 "Big Brother": Let the hoopla begin. CBS yesterday officially unveiled the Studio City, Calif.-based house-which is more like a "house trailer"-where 10 strangers will spend 100 days and nights under constant camera surveillance starting July 5. As expected, there was hype (one of the most ambitious programs in recent CBS history, executives told assembled reporters). There were new details (no, there will be no nudity). There were lots of rules (participants, for example, will be allowed only $5 per day budget). But there was something missing, and-considering the flak this show took before it hit the air in Germany and the Netherlands-that in itself was surprising. There was no controversy. Leslie Moonves, CBS Television chief, was asked about the propriety of voyeurism on a show such as this, but he noted, "I don't think it is necessarily bad [and] I think there's a desire to see this kind of programing ... I have no problem with it. This is a different kind of programing and once again, I always say, there are 500 channels. You don't like it, change the channel." He added, "Nobody shy is going in there." Indeed not. Ten contestants will be under the constant gaze of 28 cameras and, perhaps, millions of AOL subscribers. (AOL will be exclusive distributor of "Big Brother" to Internet users.) CBS will broadcast the show five nights a week, Monday through Saturday (with Wednesdays off), during a period of 89 days. (Every two weeks, one individual will be voted out of the house, until only three remain; the winner, who will be voted by the TV audience, will win $500,000.) Contestants were not identified yesterday, but John de Mol, chief executive of Endemol, the Dutch company that sold the show to CBS, noted, "I can tell you they are very motivated and interesting people that you will sometimes love and sometimes hate." Moonves also unequivocally stated yesterday that there will be no nudity or profanity on the program. Cameras have been set up in the bathroom of the house (which is 1,800 square feet) to prevent people from having secret meetings, he explained. Only one outstanding question now: The Dutch and the Germans watched, but will Americans? 06/22/2000 00:28:54 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Privacy-Cameras HL:B.C.'s privacy commissioner says videotape surveillance on rise VICTORIA (CP) The provincial privacy commissioner says British Columbians' every move is falling increasingly under the eye of video surveillance cameras. David Loukidelis said in a report release Wednesday it's getting so bad that in a few years people may not be able to walk down a street or take a bus without being monitored. ``There is a very real risk that within a few short years, British Columbians could find themselves subjected to pervasive, routine and random surveillance of their ordinary, lawful activities,'' Loukidelis said in a news release. He has issued guidelines for the use of video surveillance systems by government agencies. The guidelines say cameras should only be deployed as a last resort and where they are justified on the grounds of security, public safety and threats of crime. As well, before surveillance cameras are put in place, an assessment of the privacy impacts should be done and sent to the privacy commissioner's office for review. Loukidelis said government agencies using surveillance cameras must consider the serious privacy implications of the technology. ``These systems are not a cure-all. Their privacy implications require extreme caution and I consider their effectiveness for law enforcement purposes to be open to question in many, if not all, cases.'' Copyright (c) 2000 The Canadian Press 06/21/2000 17:58:42 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BC-MI--Park Surveillance, City plans to install surveillance cameras at three parks BRIGHTON, Mich. (AP) _ Officials in this Livingston County community have a high-tech plan to keep an eye on activity in three parks. They are installing video cameras that will monitor the outdoor areas in full color, 24 hours a day. ``The footage would be reviewed on an `as needed basis,''' Police Chief Michael Kinaschuk said. ``If there was vandalism, arson or some other problem.'' The city has been working on the surveillance system for two years. It will be connected by fiber-optic lines to the Brighton police station, where the images will be fed to a bank of monitors. Five cameras will be placed around the downtown Mill Pond and Playscape, and one at the Meijer skate park. More cameras could be added in the future, Kinaschuk said. Officials in a dozen Detroit-area cities said they have not heard of surveillance cameras being used in public places. Two subdivisions in Macomb Township, Cornerstone Village and Brittney Park, installed cameras to watch public pools and bus stops. As long as the public knows about the existence of the cameras, they are not a big problem, said Carrie Moss, executive director of the Michigan branch of the American Civil Liberties Union. ``We do have privacy concerns, but that being said, we also recognize the need to the extent that this really promotes a legitimate safety concern,'' Moss told The Detroit News for a Sunday story. Brighton's system cost about $75,000. ``I think for safety purposes it will be a great tool because our community has grown so much,'' Mayor Kate Lawrence said. Lori Blackwell brings her 5-year-old daughter, Dana, to the play area regularly. She said the cameras are a good idea because some parents are lax in watching their children. ``I've noticed that a lot of parents sit down on the sides and let their kids run wild,'' Blackwell said. ``Anybody could come in there and take your kid.'' AP-NY-06-18-00 1911EDT ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ What's Missing From a 'Safer' Sanctuary The Washington Post via Dow Jones Publication Date: Sunday June 18, 2000 Outlook; Page B05 Copyright 2000, The Washington Post Co. All Rights Reserved By Henry G. Brinton Most of us think of churches as sanctuaries, in the broadest sense--a place to escape the heat of the day, the hustle of the city, the noise of competing ideas. That's why I've always wanted my church to be an open and welcoming place, like those great cathedrals of Europe. I like to think my church is a place where anyone can come, at any time--to pray, to meditate, to admire the architecture, or simply to pause and reflect. But visit Calvary Presbyterian on any weekday and you'll find the large wooden doors locked. Since a robbery at Easter, our concern about security has heightened--and with good reason. We're not the only local church to have suffered. A colleague of mine recently had all her cash and credit cards taken by a well-dressed man who walked into her church office "just to use the phone." The entire Sunday offering was stolen from another Presbyterian church here in Alexandria. And we've all read about the murder of Monsignor Thomas Wells who was found slain in his Germantown rectory June 8. We can't pass the robbery at Calvary off as a simple instance of bad luck. Given our society's loss of respect for the sacred, perhaps I shouldn't be surprised to find that criminals are targeting churches along with convenience stores in their quest for quick cash. Robbery is an ever-present possibility today, which is why tellers at most banks speak to us from behind reinforced glass, and video cameras record our every move as we select a six-pack of soda from the shelf at some corner stores. However reluctantly, most of us have grown accustomed to this kind of vigilance in the world of commerce. But such defensive behavior tears at the very heart of what a church is about--fostering a sense of trust and community. Crime creates a peculiar tension for churches that want to be open and welcoming to all people and, at the same time, safe and secure for church members and employees. Rebecca Yeboah, an elder at Calvary, recalls the sense of disbelief she felt at Easter, when someone entered our choir room during the service and made off with two purses. "I was sad, but at the same time, didn't believe it," says Rebecca, who was one of the victims. "Especially on Easter--Resurrection Day--I thought people would be thinking about Jesus." Our thief no doubt had other thoughts--and the happy pandemonium of Easter morning provided a nice cover for the crime. After all, on a day when a church is swarming with visitors, there's no way an usher can tell the difference between a person looking for spiritual nourishment and a person searching for snatchable goods. And somehow I don't think that posting security guards to check all bags and parcels at the door would send the right message to the community! Now Rebecca carries her purse with her at all times in the church, or makes sure that the choir room is locked before she leaves it (the buzz in church circles is that choir rooms are popular targets, because singers often stash their purses there while serving in the sanctuary). She is also recommending that we lock all the church doors, except the front one, to outsiders once the worship service begins, an idea that still needs to be more fully debated. She felt her loss keenly--not just because ofthe cash and credit cards that disappeared, but because her purse also held immigration papers for her recently adopted Ghanaian daughter. Fortunately, after several anxious days, "everything worked out," she reports. The papers were replaced by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. So just what is the proper balance between security and openness? While locked doors and security systems are becoming the norm, few pastors would want to secure the sanctuary while the church is open for business. I doubt there was any way--short of equipping the church with metal detectors and armed guards--to prevent a gunman from entering Wedgewood Baptist Church in Fort Worth last September and opening fire on a group of young people, killing seven before turning the gun on himself. Access has tobe allowed for prayer and worship, says Ron Christian, a Lutheran pastor in the Washington area since 1965, and "if someone is intent on the robbery of chancel items or the destruction of property--well, this will just have to be allowed for the sake of 'freedom.' " I share Ron's commitment to openness, but I am beginning to wonder if this idealism is related in some ways to the dominance of Christianity in Western culture. Perhaps we can no longer rest assured that our sacred spaces will continue to hold the community's respect. Talking to Jack Moline, rabbi of Agudas Achim Congregation in Alexandria, brought that home to me. I learned that his congregation is more concerned about being "secure" than "open"--and this is understandable, given the history of antisemitism. "Jews have been concerned about synagogue security for hundreds of years," he told me, "and we are briefed regularly by the Jewish Community Council, the Anti-Defamation League and the FBI, especially whenever there has been an attack on a Jewish or Israeli institution, as copycat crimes are frequent. The effect is to create a gnawing feeling of insecurity which is historically usual, but still heartbreaking, especially when we have to explain it to our unsuspecting kids." Synagogues around the world have had to become accustomed to putting safety first. The incidents we have experienced at Calvary are hardly comparable with the sort of religious persecution that Jack is talking about, but I'm afraid that the feeling of insecurity he talks about is also becoming part of the atmosphere of some churches. Any attack on a community of faith hurts. Ron Christian tells me that the organ was stolen from the church he started, Lord of Life Lutheran in Northern Virginia, on the night before Thanksgiving. "Kids [were] after the keyboard," Ron explained to me, "and the 'guts' to help their rock band." My divinity school classmate, Leah Schafer, says, "My D.C. church had so much theft, I was on a first-name basis with the fingerprint team! I think that same 'circle' knew it took about seven to 10 weeks to replace the equipment that was stolen, and then they hit us again." And Jan Edmiston, co-pastor of a Presbyterian church in Alexandria, reports that three wallets have been stolen from her study, forcing her to lock her door whenever she leaves the room. At leasttwo VCRs have also been taken and a number of purses stolen during choir practice and children's events. These increased threats are forcing many pastors and church leaders I've talked with to step up their vigilance. No, we don't preach from behind bulletproof glass or maintain video surveillance of our services, but most of us now have burglar alarms and locked doors. After a very belligerent man stormed into Calvary's office one day--threatening my secretary, pushing her, taking her money and forcing her to flee to the kitchen, where she called 911--we installed an intercom by the front door. Now, ifyou want to visit the church during the week, you have to identify yourself and wait for the door to be opened. Does this destroy our sense of open sanctuary? In part. But the safety of church members and employees has to be my first concern. Most of my colleagues seem to agree, commenting that "no one expects us to put our church at risk," and observing that necessary safety precautions are becoming more accepted as the awareness of random violence increases. One female minister told me that a concern for personal safety has sometimes led her to lie if she is afraid. "On a couple of occasions, I have been in the secretary's office when someone has come in requesting a private conversation with 'the pastor,' assuming I am one of the secretaries," she told me. "If the person seems inebriated or dangerous, I simply say, 'He's not here right now.' " However necessary they may be, such defensive strategies are always going to stand in tension with a church's desire to be open to all. Not long ago, a troubled man came to Calvary's door seeking help. He was wrestling with some mental problems and asked for prayer from the elders of the church. I arranged for a small group to gather the next Sunday, and we prayed over him--a moving spiritual experience for us all. If we had been unwilling to open our doors, that man would not have found a place of sanctuary with us. He has since returned to sit and pray by himself on weekdays, and says he considers Calvary his church. That's a connection with the community that many churches hope for, but one that can be lost if doors are locked too tight. Henry Brinton is pastor of Calvary Presbyterian Church in Alexandria. ill,,emmanuel kerner for twp (END) Copyright (c) 2000 The Washington Post 06/18/2000 10:28:44 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BC-MI--Park Surveillance, City plans to install surveillance cameras at three parks BRIGHTON, Mich. (AP) _ Officials in this Livingston County community have a high-tech plan to keep an eye on activity in three parks. They are installing video cameras that will monitor the outdoor areas in full color, 24 hours a day. ``The footage would be reviewed on an `as needed basis,''' Police Chief Michael Kinaschuk said. ``If there was vandalism, arson or some other problem.'' The city has been working on the surveillance system for two years. It will be connected by fiber-optic lines to the Brighton police station, where the images will be fed to a bank of monitors. Five cameras will be placed around the downtown Mill Pond and Playscape, and one at the Meijer skate park. More cameras could be added in the future, Kinaschuk said. Officials in a dozen Detroit-area cities said they have not heard of surveillance cameras being used in public places. Two subdivisions in Macomb Township, Cornerstone Village and Brittney Park, installed cameras to watch public pools and bus stops. As long as the public knows about the existence of the cameras, they are not a big problem, said Kary Moss, executive director of the Michigan branch of the American Civil Liberties Union. ``We do have privacy concerns, but that being said, we also recognize the need to the extent that this really promotes a legitimate safety concern,'' Moss told The Detroit News for a Sunday story. Brighton's system cost about $75,000. ``I think for safety purposes it will be a great tool because our community has grown so much,'' Mayor Kate Lawrence said. Lori Blackwell brings her 5-year-old daughter, Dana, to the play area regularly. She said the cameras are a good idea because some parents are lax in watching their children. ``I've noticed that a lot of parents sit down on the sides and let their kids run wild,'' Blackwell said. ``Anybody could come in there and take your kid.'' +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ A Traffic Camera That Isn't The Washington Post via Dow Jones Publication Date: Thursday June 15, 2000 Metro; Page B07 Copyright 2000, The Washington Post Co. All Rights Reserved By Ann O'Hanlon Washington Post Staff Writer The sign near an Alexandria intersection is meant to be intimidating. "Warning," it blares, accompanied by flashing yellow lights. "Photo red light enforcement." Sure enough, as the driver approaches the intersection of Duke Street and West Taylor Run Parkway, there's the camera, painted bright yellow and staring down, waiting to snatch violators. But the camera is a fraud. No film, no photos. Nonetheless, according to city staff, since its installation nearly a year ago, the number of red-light violations at the intersection has dropped by half. Despite its success, the fakery has raised a weighty policy question: Is it all right for a government to lie to the public, if the lie doesn't hurt anyone or actually does some good? No, says City Council member Redella S. "Del" Pepper (D), who bristles at the practice. "It's dishonest," Pepper said. "I think it just erodes your credibility as a city government." Pepper does not dispute the success, but that's not the point, she said. "The choice should not be between being deceptive and having nothing there at all," she said. She pushed colleagues to buy a real camera for the intersection, but they balked at the cost of almost $300,000 annually. Council member David G. Speck (D) defends the make-believe camera and, as if to tease his colleague Pepper, routinely announces that it's a fraud. "There's a fake camera at Taylor Run Parkway and Duke," he said at a council meeting on Tuesday night. "Anybody miss that? It's a fake camera." At three other city intersections, actual surveillance goes on, but city workers rotate a single camera around the three sites. "We don't have a camera in any [one] location all of the time," Speck observed. "There's a deceptive element to all of it." On a more serious note, he referred to the epidemic of aggressive driving. "I think this is a problem that's so pervasive and so dangerous, that if there are things we can do to stop it--things that don't cause harm in their deception--I'm all for it," he said. City police occasionally get calls from guilty motorists, wanting to know when their tickets for running the red light at Duke and Taylor Run will arrive, according to police spokeswoman Amy Bertsch. It can get confusing, she said. "We do not want citizens to have the impression that surveillance is taking place somewhere 24 hours a day when it's not," she said. "It's unfair to people who believe that enforcement is going on." Even the police are sometimes fooled. "We have had officers call and request a photo for an accident they're investigating at that scene," she said. Greg Lalla, a NASA engineer who lives near the intersection, said yesterday that he and his friends don't run the light, because they have always believed there was a camera there. Told by a reporter that there is no camera, Lalla admitted he may change his ways. "Now that I know [there is no camera], if the light was yellow, I probably would go through it," he said. Spokesmen for the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety and the Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety lauded the growing national trend of authentic red-light cameras and said they believe Alexandria's fake is unique. Stuart Mackintosh, spokesman for the Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, called it "ill-advised" and a "feel-good measure." "We don't want people to get the message that this type of enforcement measure is not to be taken seriously," he said. But Mayor Kerry J. Donley (D) defended the practice. "When you go duck hunting, sometimes you've got to put a few decoys out there," he said. (END) 02:52 EDT June 15, 2000 -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- Spy Satellites Evolve Into Private Eye in the Sky Los Angeles Times via Dow Jones Publication Date: Tuesday June 13, 2000 Page A-1 Los Angeles Times (Home Edition) Copyright 2000 / The Times Mirror Company By ROBERT LEE HOTZ TIMES SCIENCE WRITER Since January, John Pike has been taking his own satellite pictures of the world's most secret military bases and then making them public on the Internet. The images and the debate they have provoked are an experiment in the high technology of democracy, for anyone now can share a view from orbit once reserved solely for those with the highest of superpower security clearances. Like the fax machine, pirate radio and encrypted e-mail, the commercial imaging satellite is becoming a tool of grass-roots political action. Pike, an owlish policy wonk with a derisive drawl and a horselaugh, is producing detailed vistas of the classified landscape: a nuclear weapons plant in India, a plutonium production facility in Pakistan, military airfields on the China coast, a missile base in North Korea, even the infamous Area 51 at Groom Lake, Nev.--perhaps the most restricted military reservation in the Americas. Not so many years ago, any one of those pictures might have landed him in jail. Today, however, Pike makes each new image public with impunity on an Internet site maintained by the Federation of American Scientists, where he works. Indeed, the way private surveillance satellites are being linked to the Internet is more than an electronic convenience. It is the inevitable next step in an information revolution that with dizzying speed is transforming what we can know about our world and who controls that knowledge. With as many as 11 companies in five countries planning to launch private imaging satellites in the next few years, it is only a matter of time and market competition before anyone can afford to see just about anything on Earth at any time, no matter what the weather--with little more than a home computer and a ready credit card. That is a radical departure from the decades of secrecy shrouding U.S. and Russian surveillance satellites, when even the name of the office that managed U.S. intelligence satellites was classified. The U.S. government did not loosen its national security restrictions enough to permit the launch of such sharp commercial eyes in space until 1994. Not until this year--when the first of those new privately owned, high-resolution imaging satellites actually became operational--did such crisp pictures from space go on sale. "The commercial imaging data has fundamentally changed things," said Vipin Gupta, a senior systems analyst who specializes in satellite imaging at Sandia National Laboratories. "Not only are the skies open but the data can be disseminated to anyone at a market price. You are opening up possibilities on how these images can be used in ways that defy imagination." They can make everyone an eyewitness in a world in which anyone--not just Big Brother--can be watching. Seeing 3-Foot-Square Objects From 423 Miles Pike buys his images from a privately owned satellite called Ikonos, launched by Space Imaging in Thornton, Colo., last September, the first private, high-resolution imaging satellite to reach orbit safely. The clarity of its images rivals the best the military can command. Anyone can buy images from its picture archive--growing by 23,000 square miles of new territory every day--through the firm's Web site at From 423 miles above Earth, the Kodak camera aboard Ikonos can peer through fog and haze and into shadows to detect objects on the ground as little as 3 feet square--twice the resolution of any other commercially available satellite imagery. Indeed, Ikonos is sharper than the secret satellites used to safeguard U.S. national security at the height of the Cold War and about one-tenth as sharp as the most advanced government photoreconnaissance satellites today, several arms control experts said. And in the next month or so, a federal advisory panel is expected to decide whether companies should be allowed to sell satellite imagery twice as sharp as currently allowed. "By 2003 all the countries and companies involved are claiming they will have a system equivalent to ours on orbit," said John R. Copple, Space Imaging's chief executive. By that time, Copple plans to be launching an imaging satellite able to produce color images with a resolution of about 19 inches--twice that of the Ikonos in orbit today. Doubling the resolution means that the resulting pictures will be four times easier to interpret, Pike said. Already, the new generation of commercial imaging satellites is eroding every nation's sense of privacy. The satellite images offer ways to second-guess governments, blur national borders and rearrange a host of relationships that until now depended on the ability to hide things--even entire cities--from the public's prying eyes. Even from orbit, a photograph of an unguarded moment can speak volumes. For example, U.S. government satellite images of newly dug mass graves in Kosovo and Bosnia have been used to call attention to possible war crimes, showing that human rights abuses can be detected from orbit. "It is sort of like visual truth serum," said Space Imaging Vice President Marc Bender. Commercial satellite imaging eventually promises to transform everything from arms control and human rights investigations to environmental monitoring and pollution control, several satellite experts said. "There are a whole bunch of non-government groups who are trying to do this," said Ann M. Florini, an expert at the Carnegie Endowment for Peace on commercial satellite policy. "There are enormous potential applications in environmental issues and in humanitarian relief." Eco-activists could use the satellites to monitor destructive logging practices, mining operations and remote construction projects as easily and inexpensively as emergency planners can use them to map storm damage and flood debris. In California, some environmentalists already have started ordering Ikonos images. The Center for Natural Lands Management is using the satellite to monitor the habitat of an endangered lizard that lives among the sand dunes of the 20,000-acre Coachella Valley Preserve north of Palm Springs. An environmental consulting firm is using the satellite to gauge the impact of land development between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. It is only a matter of time, Gupta said, before networks of amateur Earth watchers spring up and use the new satellites to systematically monitor the planet from orbit, routinely posting their discoveries on the Web, just as thousands of amateur astronomers today systematically scan the heavens for new comets. A Way to Verify Government Claims When Space Imaging announced it was ready to start selling Ikonos images in January, John Pike was among the first in line. As a matter of business planning, company executives expected their $750-million corporate gamble on orbital imaging would be repaid by customers in agriculture, urban planning, insurance and a range of other areas that depend on detailed mapping. They expected their best customer to be the federal government and foreign governments that could not afford to launch their own satellites. The company began the year with a backlog of orders for Ikonos images totaling about $15 million, mostly from commercial customers and NASA. Unwilling to disclose more specific sales figures, company officials said that new orders for images so far were strong--at up to $5,000 apiece to commission each new view. Customers have been divided equally between companies and foreign governments. Sales to the U.S. government so far have been slow, Copple said. Earlier this year, the Defense Department vowed to increase government spending on commercial space images by 800% over the next five years, but that promise has yet to make its way into a federal budget appropriation. But the most public application of the Ikonos images so far has been to serve as a check on government pronouncements in the global game of nuclear bluff and bluster. It is a topic of special interest to the Federation of American Scientists, a policy think tank that was founded by members of the Manhattan Project who produced the first atomic bomb. Over the decades, it has tried to act as a knowledgeable, independent voice in debates over the science and technology of global security. Like so many groups that challenge government policies, it frequently is handicapped by official secrecy. So, Pike and his colleagues at the federation's Public Eye Project regarded the ability to commission their own spy satellite images of secret bases with something resembling glee. Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, they have spent $50,000 since the beginning of the year on orbital images depicting secret sites in China, South Africa, Pakistan, India, Iraq, the United States and North Korea. "Each image was a revelation," Pike said. What Pike and his colleagues could see from orbit--for as little as $500 an image--sometimes confirmed, sometimes confounded the official pronouncements about international military threats and potential arms control violations. While many experts disagreed on what the facilities in the pictures mean, anyone in the world now can look at them via the Internet at and join the argument. "It makes all the debates on these issues two-sided," said USC international law expert Edwin M. Smith, who until recently was a consultant to the U.S. undersecretary for arms control and international security affairs. Interpreting the Photos Takes Some Expertise The governments whose secrets Pike has put on public display by and large have kept their own counsel. But some arms control analysts dismiss his efforts as the work of an ill-informed amateur who does not know enough to properly interpret what the satellite is showing him. (MORE) 07:30 EDT June 13, 2000 -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- BC-OH--Red Light Crashers, Ohio Bjt,0417 Red light crashers next cause for safety advocates DAYTON, Ohio (AP) _ Traffic safety advocates, whose previous campaigns have helped reduce drunken driving and increase seat-belt use, are now targeting red light crashers. Signal violations have declined nationally since 1996, but not enough to make up for the sharp rise from 1992 to 1996, when crashes rose by 15 percent and fatalities by 19 percent, the Dayton Daily News reported Tuesday. ``So many of us trust the red light or the stop sign and just go through the intersection,'' said Linda Kelley of Butler Township, whose daughter, Jessica, died as a result of a signal violation in January. ``They teach us in driver's ed that we should always look both ways before entering an intersection, but we don't.'' Concern about signal crashers has led to prolonged police surveillance of marked intersections, as the Ohio Highway Patrol is doing, and increased use of cameras at intersections in other states. In a program called Targeting Dangerous Intersections, the Ohio Highway Patrol has begun assigning troopers for several hours at a time to crossroads with high crash volumes, said Sgt. Gary Lewis. Dr. Douglas Paul, who directs the trauma program at Good Samaritan Hospital in Dayton, favors the use of automatic cameras at intersections to catch violators, but the practice is illegal in Ohio and unacceptable to many who consider it a government intrusion. ``Some way, somehow, we have to make people accountable for their behavior even when the police aren't sitting at the corner,'' Paul said. ``If this can reduce people becoming seriously injured and dying, then I'm all for it. They're not going to have surveillance cameras watching you 24 hours a day like Big Brother in George Orwell.'' The cameras are activated by the red-light cycle and, in the application Paul recommends, only capture images of cars that enter an intersection after the red light goes on. Some states photograph only license plates, others permit pictures of the drivers. The camera setups, costing at least $70,000, can be moved to different intersections. ``These injuries not only cause a lot of deaths, they also cause injuries that take people away from being productive citizens,'' Paul said. ``They cost us all a lot of money and a lot of heartaches.'' AP-NY-06-13-00 0139EDT -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- BC-Columbine-Surveillance Tapes, Columbine surveillance tapes give glimpse of tragedy LITTLETON, Colo. (AP) _ Videotapes from surveillance cameras show students huddling under tables in the Columbine High School cafeteria and then two gunmen casually walking through the room after nearly everyone had fled. The tapes give some glimpses of the chaos that erupted when students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold began an assault April 20, 1999, that left 12 students and a teacher dead. The pair then killed themselves. The Jefferson County sheriff's office made the tapes public last week after a judge ruled in favor of victims' families who sought them under the state open-records law. The two tapes are from four surveillance cameras in the cafeteria, which is downstairs from the main killing field in the library. The sheriff's report, released in May, said Klebold and Harris began shooting at 11:19 a.m. Students eating lunch in the cafeteria dropped to the floor and crawled under tables about three minutes later, according to the digital imprint of the time across the bottom of the video. Three adult males, two in T-shirts and jeans and the other in a checked shirt, ran throughout the cafeteria. There is no sound, but it appears the men warned students and kept watch while checking on what was happening. School maintenance workers were credited with alerting students in the cafeteria and guiding them to safety. Harris was at the edge of the frame at 11:44. He crouched down on the stairs and rested the barrel of a rifle or shotgun on the rail, pointing it into the cafeteria. A few seconds later, Klebold, carrying a gun, walked down the stairs. He strolled around the tables and overturned chairs. He threw something, which exploded and started a fire at 11:46. The two students under the table and the one by the pillar scrambled from their hiding places and ran out a side door. Investigators said Harris and Klebold carried bombs into the school in duffel bags and backpacks the morning of the attack. Most of the bombs didn't explode. The sheriff's office was also ordered to release recordings of radio transmissions. Officials have said technicians must transfer the transmissions to compact disc. Families of 10 people killed or wounded at Columbine have filed lawsuits in state and federal courts alleging sheriff's deputies failed to act fast enough to rescue the students and a wounded teacher and failed to properly train deputies, dispatchers and 911 operators. Sheriff's officials have defended the department's actions. -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- Intevac, Inc. Announces U.S. Army Contract to Develop an Integrated Camera For Surveillance and Targeting SANTA CLARA, Calif., June 12 /PRNewswire/ -- The Photonics Technology Division of Intevac, Inc. (Nasdaq: IVAC) today announced the award of a contract from the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) for the development and demonstration of a low light level surveillance and targeting camera system optimized for range gated, active systems which uses a pulsed laser operating at 1.5 microns as the illumination source. This award was made under the Dual Use Science and Technology (DUST) Program where the government partners with industry to jointly fund the development of technologies needed to maintain U.S. technological superiority on the battlefield and for industry to remain competitive in the marketplace. The project is expected to cost $10,892,044. Funding will be shared by CECOM and Intevac. The project is jointly funded by the Army and Air Force as the camera system has broad cross service applications. Funding will be released in increments over two years. Two separate research projects will be conducted under the contract. The first project includes the development of an integrated camera for surveillance and targeting. This camera will be developed in collaboration with CECOM utilizing a commercial/military Electron Bombarded Active Pixel Sensor (EBAPS) technology being separately developed under a NIST contract. Three major, parallel, technology development efforts will be conducted and coordinated under this CECOM project including Transferred Electron EBAPS (TE-EBAPS) camera development, the CMOS APS chip development to support the camera, and thermal hardening of the TE photocathode to enable military and industrial storage temperature requirements to be met. The second project includes a manufacturing technology effort for reducing the fabrication cost of the transferred electron photocathode tube, the primary component of the camera. Investigation into manufacturing processes aimed at increasing the yield of component parts, particularly the finished photocathodes; improving the component assembly process; and increasing component fabrication and assembly throughput will be conducted. The lower cost sensors will allow broader use by military and non-military users in general targeting and surveillance applications. Intevac's Photonics Technology Division General Manager, Mr. Verle Aebi, said, "This program is an important step on our road map to complete development of products for military and civilian applications of our Laser Illuminated Viewing and Ranging (LIVAR(TM)) technology. We are delighted that this technology development has continued strong support by the Army and Air Force. Intevac's LIVAR(TM) technology allows positive identification of objects at several kilometer and greater ranges. This program will advance our progress in improving performance and reducing cost to enable our LIVAR(TM) products to be utilized for long-range target identification. Applications include the Army's Cost Effective Targeting System (CETS) for the Future Combat System (FCS), manportable systems for both military and civilian surveillance, and air to ground non-cooperative target identification systems for the Air Force with possible application on future platforms including the Joint Strike Fighter. Civilian applications include further cost effective products utilizing the LIVAR(TM) technology in our line of EBAPS cameras." Intevac's Photonics business develops electro-optical devices that permit highly sensitive detection of photons in the visible and short wave infrared portions of the spectrum. This technology, when combined with advanced silicon integrated circuits, makes it possible to produce highly sensitive video cameras. This development work is creating new products for both military and industrial applications. Products include Intensified Digital Video Sensors, cameras incorporating those sensors and Laser Illuminated Viewing and Ranging ("LIVAR") systems for positive target identification. CONTACT: For more information on Intevac visit the Company's website or contact Charles Eddy, Chief Financial Officer, Intevac, Inc., 3560 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, CA 95054, 408-496-2259, or SOURCE Intevac -0- 06/12/2000 /CONTACT: Charles Eddy, Chief Financial Officer of Intevac, Inc., 408-496-2259, or /Company News On-Call: or fax, 800-758-5804, ext. 109692/ /Web site: -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- Tech 2010: #14 Feel Secure: The Surveillance Camera That Picks Out the Bad Guys The New York Times via Dow Jones Publication Date: Sunday June 11, 2000 Magazine Desk; Section 6; Page 71, Column 3 c. 2000 New York Times Company By Rob Turner When a thief cases a house, even the craftiest old pro gives himself away. It could be a movement as subtle as as change in gait. A cop might pick that up, if there was one around to see it. So might a camera, says Joseph J. Atick, president of Visionics, a Jersey City-based software maker. Visionics has developed a surveillance device that works with built-in processors to monitor human behavior. The camera can be programmed, for example, to notice someone lingering in one spot for too long, or it can recognize (and recall) a face that reappears at different intervals. It can even analyze a person's body language and sound an alarm if it picks up a suspicious pattern. ''It follows the classic saying that people have a hard time chewing gum and walking at the same time,'' explains Atick. ''If they're doing something, looking at a building with an intention to analyze something, the body inclination changes, the way the muscles are carried. Motor control starts taking a different pattern.'' Atick's camera can be programmed for more mundane tasks too, such as recognizing members of a family and unlocking the front door for them. In the works are more advanced programs that gauge the emotion of a person by detecting a smile or a furrowed brow. The technology to do much of this exists now, but it's expensive. And not everybody is eager to embrace machines that are programmed to differentiate human behavior. Experts like George Kelling, a criminologist and co-author of the acclaimed book ''Fixing Broken Windows,'' are a bit leery of the idea. ''What bothers me about a lot of the technological solutions,'' Kelling says, ''is that they are basically antisocial.'' Kelling's prescription for a more effective, ''pro-social'' crime-fighting tool: front porches. 06:15 EDT June 11, 2000 Copyright (c) 2000 The New York Times Co. -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- Big Brother, Summertime, and the livin' is vicarious with 'Big Brother' By LYNN ELBER AP Television Writer LOS ANGELES (AP) _ On the CBS Studio Center lot, tucked into a corner usually given over to parking spots, is the house that voyeurism built. Dutch, Spanish and German viewers have gone wild over a television show that joins 10 strangers in a spartan home for three months under unblinking cameras and the audience's judgmental eye. In July, America will get its own version of the peep show with ``Big Brother,'' and CBS is gambling that the titillation quotient and ratings will be as impressive on this side of the Atlantic. The upside for players: a $500,000 prize for the one who avoids being expelled by fellow housemates and the TV audience. The downside: cameras everywhere. (Yes, everywhere. Even in the bathroom.) And then there's the tacit ``No Exit'' sign. ``They can leave if they want. The door's open ... but it's a one-way door,'' said Paul Romer, the Dutch TV executive who helped create ``Big Brother'' and is producing the U.S. version. CBS is the same network that's airing ``Survivor,'' based on a Swedish show, in which 16 people compete on a desert island for a $1 million prize. Both followed the success of ABC's ``Who Wants to be a Millionaire,'' patterned after a British game show. And audiences have responded. ``Survivor'' managed to hold its own in its debut against ``Millionaire'' and scored impressively among coveted younger viewers. ``People want something different. There's more of a voyeuristic nature to our watching habits,'' contends Leslie Moonves, president of CBS Television, which paid a reported $20 million to Dutch producer Endemol Entertainment for rights to ``Big Brother,'' to run July 6-Sept. 30. ``People are intrigued by seeing someone who could be their next-door neighbor or their Uncle John in a situation like this,'' Moonves said. Robert Thompson, director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, agrees. ``Voyeurism and television were destined to embrace, and the miracle, I think, isn't so much that they've finally done so. The miracle is they've taken so long,'' Thompson said _ especially given the successful tenure of MTV's ``Real World.'' The mild-mannered Romer makes ``Big Brother's'' concept seem benign, despite its chilling Orwellian title (drawn from the novel ``1984,'' about a totalitarian society devoid of privacy). ``It's just a television show. It's fun,'' he said. ``Humans are curious beings. We like to know how other people live. We like to know what other people do.'' The audience will see ``normal Americans, living their lives more or less normally in this house ... It's fun to get to know them during those three months, and it's kind of a reflection of society.'' Kind of. First, the 10 participants will surrender virtually all contact with the outside world along with their privacy. The 1,800-foot home, with adjoining vegetable garden and exercise area, is screened to prevent the CBS studio crew _ which represents the outside world, kind of _ from contaminating ``Big Brother's'' hermetic environment. The house is stocked with staples, including beans, rice, potatoes and frozen meat. Participants have to tend the vegetable crop and the chicken coop. There's no television, no radio, no newspapers, although each person can bring a small suitcase with a few distractions such as books or games. What's in plentiful supply are cameras (28) and microphones (60). Tracks running behind one-way mirrors allow the cameras to sneak along in pursuit of the players. Other remote-control cameras are fixed throughout the house, including a small ``lipstick'' version in the shower. ``The bathroom camera is never shown on television,'' said series co-executive producer Douglas Ross. ``It's there for the participants' safety. We also want them to not have any private places, so they can't go into the bathroom and have a conversation which we're not privy to.'' Condensed versions of each day's footage will be shown in half-hour episodes Monday, Tuesday and Friday, with a one-hour recap Saturday. On Thursday, ``Big Brother'' raises the ante with a full hour of live TV. Internet users can conduct round-the-clock surveillance. Every two weeks, the housemates will nominate two colleagues for expulsion, with TV viewers then voting out one of them by telephone. At the end, the audience will choose the winner from the three remaining players. The German version of ``Big Brother'' used careful editing to juice up the action, according to one magazine article. Romer, who contends that's ``not entirely accurate,'' said no liberties will be taken here. ``We're on the Internet 24 hours a day, real time, so if we try to manipulate events we would have a lot of reaction from the Internet community,'' he said. ``Big Brother'' will, however, toy with its guests. The group will face regular challenges, such as agreeing on who gets dibs on rare phone privileges. More than 1,000 people submitted videotaped applications to become players. Next week, 64 finalists will arrive in Los Angeles to undergo further scrutiny, including psychological testing and what CBS vows will be comprehensive background checks. Because of revelations that emerged about instant couple Rick Rockwell and Darva Conger after Fox aired ``Who Wants to Marry a Multimillionaire?'', Ross said, ``we wanted to make sure we were doubly careful.'' Their overseas popularity aside, CBS' summer series arrived with baggage. A losing contestant from the Swedish version of ``Survivor'' committed suicide in 1997, although the network denied responsibility. And ``Big Brother'' was harshly criticized before it aired in Holland and Germany, with The Netherlands Institute of Psychologists calling the show ``irresponsible and unethical.'' Romer notes that ``Big Brother'' has generated little controversy so far here, despite heavy advertising and publicity. Which is not to say it's avoided scrutiny altogether. Dorothy Swanson, founder of the grassroots Viewers for Quality Television, dismissed ``Big Brother'' as ``lazy programming.'' In search of escapist summer fare, however, Swanson admitted she'll likely tune in. So will Syracuse's Thompson. As a professor, ``I'm disgusted at the way the greatest communications medium in planetary history is going,'' he said. ``The other side of me, however, the person alone in a room with a television and no accountability, can't wait for the next 'Survivor,'' can't wait until July to see 'Big Brother.''' On the Net: -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- A Call for Safety / Rudy asks cops to find solution to subway shoves. Sidebar: WHEN PUSH COMES TO SHOVE (SEE END OF TEXT) Newsday, 06/07/00 Mayor Rudolph Giuliani says it's probably every New Yorker's deepest fear: a shove or fall onto subway tracks. So in the wake of nine subway-platform attacks this year, equal to the total for all of last year, police say, Giuliani is asking the Police Department to explore ways to reduce those occurrences, he announced yesterday. The mayor already has some fixes to suggest, such as moving the yellow line a few feet in from the platform's edge, and having police issue warnings or summonses to those who step over it. Some stations also might be able to accommodate railings as well as surveillance cameras and additional police, he added. "We should do more to try to figure out-including the situations where people accidentally fall on the subway tracks-if there is a better way to handle the crowds and to handle the people that are waiting for subway trains," Giuliani said. But it's the Metropolitan Transportation Authority that operates the 468-station system and would have to approve any recommendations by the Giuliani administration. Giuliani said he had not yet discussed his ideas with the MTA. MTA spokesman Al O'Leary said his agency is all ears. But, he added, "I also have to say that this is not the first time this problem has been studied. There are no simple solutions, that's for sure." The mayor's proposal comes at a time when subway ridership is surging and, according to transit advocates, there has been an apparent drop in the number of officers seen patrolling the system. At Giuliani's urging, the Police Department took over the transit police force in April, 1995, leading many critics to predict that there would be fewer officers on the subway. Newsday reported in 1997 that internal police records showed the number of officers assigned to transit districts to patrol the subway dropped by 13 percent within the first 17 months of the takeover. More recent data was not available, but Gene Russianoff, senior attorney for the Straphangers Campaign, said it appears that fewer police are visible. "I do believe that the actual presence of uniformed officers in the subway is less than it used to be," he said. "A police presence is a deterrent." Giuliani said there were enough police. "The answer is not always more police officers, because police officers can't be everywhere and anywhere," he said. The Giuliani administration study will include a review of how other big cities have sought to protect their subway riders from pushes and accidents. Deputy Mayor Rudy Washington, who sits on the MTA board, will be involved. A private consultant may also be hired, a city official said. The Police Department said that of nine incidents this year, four people ended up on the tracks, seriously injured but not killed. The remaining five were unsuccessful attempts at pushing riders over the edge. During 1999, there were nine actual or attempted shoves, police said. The idea for a police review was first broached during the mayor's 8 a.m. cabinet meeting and wasprompted by two widely reported cases, according to a city official. The mayor announced the study to reporters a few hours later. In one of the recent incidents of note, Julio DeJesus was arrested for allegedly trying to push a woman into the tracks June 4 on the C line at 110th Street and Central Park West. In the other case, Paul O'Dwyer allegedly tried to push two women onto the D line tracks at the Broadway-Lafayette and West Fourth Street stations. He has been apprehended. In April, 1999, City Council Speaker Peter Vallone wrote a letter to Transit Authority president Lawrence Reuter, stating, "We are way past the time for something to be done." That letter was prompted by the case of Kendra Webdale, pushed to her death by a mentally disturbed man who had been in and out of institutions. In testimony before the council's transportation committee that June, Reuter said that the installation of railings "will cause more problems on the system than they will solve" since subway cars and stations are not uniform and platforms are relatively narrow- something the mayor conceded yesterday. The cities that have railings, such as Hong Kong, have newer transit systems that were designed with such precautions in mind, Reuter testified. Still, Reuter said the city's subway system had made strides toward heightening riders' awareness of risky behavior, such as standing too close to the platform edge. Michael Doyle, associate director of the New York City Transit Riders Council, an advocacy organization, doubts that much more can be done to improve safety, except perhaps adding closed-circuit TVs and increasing the presence of police on cars and platforms. "The subway is really a very safe place, overall," Doyle said. "If you want to improve safety further, you should add subway service- and you'll need to increase the funding for the care of people with serious mental illness in New York State." Giuliani, speaking to reporters in midtown Manhattan, said probably every New Yorker has a memory of a high-profile subway incident. In decades past, these incidents have defined the city's unpredictability and its perils. He said he'd like the Legislature to make it possible for judges to treat repeat misdemeanor offenders like DeJesus, who had several fare-beating arrests, as if they had committed a felony. "You have to work on changing human behavior," Giuliani said. WHEN PUSH COMES TO SHOVE Straphangers have been shoved onto the tracks or toward the tracks nine times this year already, police officials said yesterday. That figure, through the first five months of the year, equals the total for 1999. Five of the incidents were described as attempts and four as incidents where the victims were actually shoved to the trackbed. None of this year's incidents resulted in death. On Feb. 5, at the Nostrand Avenue stop on the 3 line, a hooded man walked up to a 68-year-old man and said "How you been?" The hooded man walked away and then suddenly appeared behind the older man and shoved him to the trackbed, causing head and back injuries. On Feb. 6, at the 88th Street stop on the A line, a 77-year-old man was accosted by three younger men. They took his money, hit him with a glass bottle and threw him to the ground. On March 1, at the 111th Street stop on the 3 line, a 16-year-old youth was shoved by two other teens toward the tracks after they ripped off his watch. On March 27, at the Seaside Avenue station on the A line, a 13- year-old boy was shoved onto the tracks by an unknown assailant. Another 13-year-old was arrested in the incident. On April 6, at the Main Street station of the 7 line in Flushing another teen was accosted. He was pushed to the tracks, but not injured. On May 19, at 71st Street and Continental Avenue on the G line, a 16-year-old was approached by a man who tried to push him to the trackbed. The victim grabbed a pole and held on. On May 22, at the Broadway and Lafayette station on the D line, a 44-year-old man was shoved toward the tracks, but he held on and fought off his attacker. A homeless man named Paul O'Dwyer was arrested, but only after he allegedly accosted a woman at the West Fourth Street station on the D line. He grabbed her by the hair and tried to drag her to the end of the platform, police said. On June 4, at 110th Street and Central Park West, a woman, 24, was shoved twice toward the track by Julio DeJesus, a 36 year-old homeless man with a record of 38 convictions over the past 10 years, police said. DeJesus was arrested. -((((OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO))))- BC-MN--UM-Alcohol Arrests, Alcohol arrests still high at University of Minnesota MINNEAPOLIS (AP) _ Only the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Michigan State University had more alcohol-related arrests in 1998 than the University of Minnesota's Twin Cities campus, according to a survey on campus crime. The annual survey by The Chronicle of Higher Education, released Sunday, showed 606 liquor law violations at the Minnesota university, behind the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with 792 arrests, and Michigan State University, with 655. In 1997, the Twin Cities campus had 555 alcohol-related arrests, second to Michigan State's 854 in the survey of 481 four-year colleges and universities with at least 5,000 students. Madison had only 342 alcohol arrests in 1997. One of the reasons the university's Twin Cities campus is generally near the top in alcohol-related arrests is size _ the school is the largest listed in the top five. University police also say that, in recent years, increased vigilance about drinking and drunkenness on campus has bumped up arrest totals. University Police Chief George Aylward said most of those arrested are not university students. They include people driving through campus and people leaving bars and parties in surrounding neighborhoods. ``Two-thirds of our arrests for alcohol are nonstudents, people who are on our streets and campus but are passing through,'' Aylward said. Of the 606 alcohol-related arrests in 1998, 404 were nonstudents. Nationwide, The Chronicle reported that alcohol arrests on college campuses increased more than 24 percent in 1998, and arrests for drug law violations jumped 11 percent. At the university's Twin Cities campus, drug arrests increased 46 percent, from 72 to 105. Only 17 of those arrests, which overwhelmingly involved marijuana violations, were of university students. As a group, the Minnesota colleges and universities surveyed had low violent-crime rates, though arrests for alcohol violations increased at all seven state institutions that reported crime statistics. The biggest percentage increase was at Minnesota State University, Mankato, where alcohol-related arrests increased 106 percent to 231 in 1998, from 112 in 1997. Malcolm O'Sullivan, assistant vice president for student affairs, said the increase probably reflects increased campus security and additional camera surveillance of campus parking lots. Minnesota State's policies on alcohol violations also are stricter than those at some other schools, O'Sullivan said. Some institutions use student discipline codes to handle alcohol violations, while Mankato city police always are called if underage students appear intoxicated or are seen with liquor on at Minnesota State, O'Sullivan said. At the University of Minnesota-Duluth, liquor-law violations rose to 107 in 1998, from 82 the previous year; at Moorhead State, the liquor arrests rose to 79, from 27. At St. Cloud State, the arrests rose to 16, from 7; at the University of St. Thomas arrests rose to 9, from 3, and at Winona State, arrests inched to 5, from 4. On the Net: The Chronicle of Higher Education: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ end